❤ The Vanquished: Why the First World War Failed to End free download ➞ Author Robert Gerwarth – 1sm.info

The Vanquished: Why the First World War Failed to End This book was interesting, and very readablebut also very incoherent I mean that in the sense of, each of the chapters was good in isolation, but he had a tendency to go back and regurgitate stuff almost whole cloth from previous chapters, not to mention a LOT of chronological time jumping back and forth that made it hard to follow the thread of his narrative I m still not entirely sure what his overarching point was, because it never seemed to really build up to anything His conclusion, s This book was interesting, and very readablebut also very incoherent I mean that in the sense of, each of the chapters was good in isolation, but he had a tendency to go back and regurgitate stuff almost whole cloth from previous chapters, not to mention a LOT of chronological time jumping back and forth that made it hard to follow the thread of his narrative I m still not entirely sure what his overarching point was, because it never seemed to really build up to anything His conclusion, such as it was, seemed fairly pedestrian discharged soldiers couldn t adapt to peacetime life, defeated states couldn t accept the territorial revisions of Versailles and I m not sure we really needed another book to defend that conclusion.I did like the discussions on interwar areas that tend to be neglected Hungary and Bulgaria both got decent facetime explaining their problems I would ve liked to seeon Finland and Italy, both of whom got shockingly glossed over treatments on their postwar problems I think the Finnish civil war, which I didn t even know had happened, got about a page and a half, if that Covering much of the same ground as Watt s The Kings Depart, Gerwarth looks at WWI and its aftermath as a case of the war weakening the containment and direction states had used on simmering violent tendencies by sending their young men into uniform, playing groups off against one another, uniting them around a ruler or religion, winding them up for pogroms against minorities etc and unleashing a storm of people who engaged in acts of annihilation against economic, religious or ethnic enem Covering much of the same ground as Watt s The Kings Depart, Gerwarth looks at WWI and its aftermath as a case of the war weakening the containment and direction states had used on simmering violent tendencies by sending their young men into uniform, playing groups off against one another, uniting them around a ruler or religion, winding them up for pogroms against minorities etc and unleashing a storm of people who engaged in acts of annihilation against economic, religious or ethnic enemies While treaties might have ended conflict between states, the riots, purges, coups and genocides spilling across flimsy and often newly minted boundaries didn t stop in 1919, seeding ambitions of treaty revisions, personal vengeance including the stat that people who lost property in post WWI redrawings or seizures were SIX timesrepresented in Holocaust perpetrators , gender hatreds there s a lotwork to be done on German loathing for Latvian Bolshevik women snipers and Nazi female enshrinement and reversals of minority majority populations Richly sourced and pan Eurasian in scope although with endnotes, which makes me itch , this also has a 17 page introduction which is a perfect encapsulation of WWI through a constructivist lens A Times Literary Supplement Best Book Of An Epic, Groundbreaking Account Of The Ethnic And State Violence That Followed The End Of World War I Conflicts That Would Shape The Course Of The Twentieth CenturyFor The Western Allies, November Has Always Been A Solemn Date The End Of Fighting That Had Destroyed A Generation, But Also A Vindication Of A Terrible Sacrifice With The Total Collapse Of The Principal Enemies The German Empire, Austria Hungary, And The Ottoman Empire But For Much Of The Rest Of Europe This Was A Day With No Meaning, As A Continuing, Nightmarish Series Of Conflicts Engulfed Country After CountryIn The Vanquished, A Highly Original And Gripping Work Of History, Robert Gerwarth Asks Us To Think Again About The True Legacy Of The First World War In Large Part It Was Not The Fighting On The Western Front That Proved So Ruinous To Europe S Future, But The Devastating Aftermath, As Countries On Both Sides Of The Original Conflict Were Savaged By Revolutions, Pogroms, Mass Expulsions, And Further Major Military Clashes In The Years Immediately After The Armistice, Millions Would Die Across Central, Eastern, And Southeastern Europe Before The Soviet Union And A Series Of Rickety And Exhausted Small New States Would Come Into Being It Was Here, In The Ruins Of Europe, That Extreme Ideologies Such As Fascism Would Take Shape And Ultimately Emerge TriumphantAs Absorbing In Its Drama As It Is Unsettling In Its Analysis, The Vanquished Is Destined To Transform Our Understanding Of Not Just The First World War But The Twentieth Century As A Whole This book is way too short to contain the vast and furious events it tries to explain In 1917 18 four empires collapsed German, Russian, Habsburg, Ottoman and dozens of new countries were born or imposed from above the Bolshevik revolution in Russia drove everyone completely crazy with the notion that either you were a Red and you wanted to exterminate all the capitalist exploiters who had just caused the misery of four years of war, or you wanted to kill all the dangerous Reds before they h This book is way too short to contain the vast and furious events it tries to explain In 1917 18 four empires collapsed German, Russian, Habsburg, Ottoman and dozens of new countries were born or imposed from above the Bolshevik revolution in Russia drove everyone completely crazy with the notion that either you were a Red and you wanted to exterminate all the capitalist exploiters who had just caused the misery of four years of war, or you wanted to kill all the dangerous Reds before they hung you and your children from a lamp post so that great paranoid battle was raging across all of Europe at the precise time that everyone was trying to create these newfangled nation states Because after you have lived in a huge multicultural empire like Austro Hungary, and then you are allowed to inaugurate your new nation state, what is it that you will be thinking about Making your new state ethnically pure, of course Expelling from your ancestral lands the scurvy foreigners you have had to put up with for so many generations, that s what So here was a rich recipe for chaos indeed left right civil wars mixed with land seizures by freebooting militias with a taste for ethnic cleansing All done under the benign gaze of Woodrow Wilson, president of the USA, who believed that liberal democracy could replace despotic empire as easily as a man could swap a top hat for a bowler A FEW FLAVOURSOME QUOTESMunich, 1919 As the army and Freikorps troops moved into the citythan 600 people were killed during the fighting, many of them civilian bystanders Summary executions of prisoners continued 53 Russians who had served in the Red Army were tortured and shot in Pasing, an outskirt of Munich.Hungary, 1919 A Red News article said Before they stifle the revolution, suffocate them in their own blood Political violence in the second half of 1919 and the early 1920s took the lives of up to 5000 people Ruhr Valley, Germany, 1920The army leadership had no reservation about opening fire on striking workers In the event, some 1000 Red Army insurgents were killed before the March Rising was finally put down by government troopsSofia, 1925An underground group of communist activists detonated a bomb on 16 April 1925 in the roof of Sveta Nedelya Cathdral during a public funeral service for General Konstantin Georgiev, who had been assassinated by communists a few days earlier The explosion led to the collapse of the cathedral s roof, killing over 130 mourner, including many senior army officer and politicians Now you can see that this book is 446 pages long in paperback, so that seems adequate, surely But no a whole 178 pages are taken up with end notes and the index, so this book is a mere 267 pages long, and that s why I say it is too short So many revolutions, counter revolutions, coups, purges, riots, strikes, assassinations they all begin to blur together Professor Gerwarth brings the gruesome whirligig to a halt in the year 1923 and tells us that relative peace descended upon Europe, finally It lasted for a whole six years In 1929 the effects of the Wall Street crash swept over Europe bringing massive economic destabilisation, leading to another round of extreme politics, the abandonment of democracy and the coming of the jackboot, with World War Two and the Holocaust a few years down the line.This history, I think, explains why many Europeans of today hold so dearly to the idea of the European Union interesting take on the defeated nations of WW1 Russia, Germany, Austria and Hungary, Turkey, Bulgaria but uneven as it isof a short summary than a detailed analysis and the book has probably 1 3 of the number of pages in references the actual text is about 200 pages or so Absorbing most of the time but neededdetail to be really good A fascinating book that explores how the strife experienced by the defeated and other combatant nations of world war one seeded theexpansively genocidal second war The opening chapter, which begins with the expulsion of Greeks from Smyrna in 1923 and the quite horrific murder of the Orthodox archbishop by a Turkish mob, sets out the line of the thesis clearly that the varied civil wars, revolutions, counter revolutions, ethnic conflicts and border disputes that visited Russia, Germany, T A fascinating book that explores how the strife experienced by the defeated and other combatant nations of world war one seeded theexpansively genocidal second war The opening chapter, which begins with the expulsion of Greeks from Smyrna in 1923 and the quite horrific murder of the Orthodox archbishop by a Turkish mob, sets out the line of the thesis clearly that the varied civil wars, revolutions, counter revolutions, ethnic conflicts and border disputes that visited Russia, Germany, Turkey, Italy and the Hapsburg successor states marked a distinct change in the way some European societies saw themselves and others, and how war was perceived and conducted The 1919 1923 period is essentially a precursor to 1939 1945 The first throb of Barbarossa starts here What follows in the book are a series of potted histories of the course of various conflicts For the uninitiated, these will serve as a useful primer, especially for those used to seeing world war one through an Allied filter For the non layman, it s debatable whether Gerwarth adds anything new to the better documented histories, say Weimar insurrections, or the Russian Civil War However, Gerwarth does shine his light in some unusual places like Hungary and Bulgaria, and an emphasis on Turkey and the example Ataturk provided for western fascists is welcome Overall, it s a pretty good book to recommend to anyone who needs reminding of what can happen when multiculturalism is trumped by rampant nationalism and catastrophist notions of the enemy within, the enemy other who lives just down the road The book is a historical masterpiece, covers the history just after the end of the First Great War detailing all the travails of the new republics and nations which came into existence after the demise of the great Landed empires, Romonovs, German Riche, Habsburg and the Ottomans of the 19th century The fall of these mighty empires resulted in a great chaos and rude political awakening for millions of its subjects who suddenly found themselves confronting a variety of hitherto unknown and untes The book is a historical masterpiece, covers the history just after the end of the First Great War detailing all the travails of the new republics and nations which came into existence after the demise of the great Landed empires, Romonovs, German Riche, Habsburg and the Ottomans of the 19th century The fall of these mighty empires resulted in a great chaos and rude political awakening for millions of its subjects who suddenly found themselves confronting a variety of hitherto unknown and untested political ideologies which led to civil war in some places and putsch in others Some of the new nations went into a revivalist spiral of vengeful hate against their conquerors which resulted in the Second Great War of 1940 The growth of right wing fascism makes completes sense to me now after reading about the whole context of the aftermath of the First Great War It s a fascinating read for any fan of history On November 11th, 1918, at precisely 11 11 am, all of the guns on the Western Front fell silent For the first time in four years of horrific war, every cannon, rifle, machine gun ceased, according to the provisions of a just signed armistice Apparently soldiers experienced the sudden silence as something like the onset of divine mercy Men wept openly, overcome by the quiet and shattering arrival of peace.Many people take this astonishing moment as the end of World War I, with some good reason On November 11th, 1918, at precisely 11 11 am, all of the guns on the Western Front fell silent For the first time in four years of horrific war, every cannon, rifle, machine gun ceased, according to the provisions of a just signed armistice Apparently soldiers experienced the sudden silence as something like the onset of divine mercy Men wept openly, overcome by the quiet and shattering arrival of peace.Many people take this astonishing moment as the end of World War I, with some good reason Hostilities did end in France Soon after a semblance of liberal democracy began to spread, abetted by American president Wilson s idealism Yet Robert Gerwath s The Vanquished shows that the war did not end on that date In fact, several wars continued, and several others sprang into terrible life, wrecking havoc largely among the many peoples whose nations lost in the war World War I did not so much end as fall apart, stagger along, and mutate For those living in Riga, Kiev, Smyrna, or many other places in eastern, central, and south eastern Europe in 1919, there was no peace, only continuous violence 4 More than 4 million people died of violence right after WWI, in revolts, civil wars, invasions, and coups 7 So much for peace.This isn t a question of pedantic detail Instead, paying attention to what happened alongside and right after the Armistice of Compi gne honors the enormous struggles that also occurred, while shedding light on subsequent events, including the rise of fascism and WWII This is rich and complex history, so I ll summarize all too quickly In eastern Europe, the Russian revolutions of 1917 the fall of the tsar, the Bolshevik revolt, the construction of a Soviet state gave way to a spectacular civil war, which included a war with Poland, an attempted invasion of Germany, and invasion by multiple other nations including the United States, Britain, France, and Japan , only ending in 1922 Newly independent Baltic states experienced revolts and invasions, like the Latvian War for Independence 1918 1920 Newly independent Finland fought an intensive civil war in 1918, killing 1% of its population as a visitor to that country, I can testify that that war s impact is still a living thing in the 21st century Bulgarians revolted against their state, which led to a reign of terror against its putative supporters Hungary had a Soviet style state in 1918, which was overwhelmed by its neighbors in stillfighting.Soldiers from the defeated German empire formed independent groups Freikorps to fight in these wars, and also at home, since Germany itself went through at least one revolution, plus a series of revolts and attempted coups For instance, left wingers created a Bavarian Soviet Republic in 1918, which lasted until demolished by Freikorps and others in 1919 Farther east, European powers dismantled the Ottoman Empire, which led to a bitter war primarily between Greece and newly formed Turkey, along with newly formed Armenia and victorious France.Western Europe fared better than the aforementioned central and eastern Europe, but still endured further strife Spain underwent three Bolshevik years of revolts and instability, culminating in a dictatorship Ireland fought for independence from Britain, then lunged into civil war Across the Atlantic the United States spasmed into a Red Scare, with multiple civil liberty violations and acts of violence.Another victor, Italy, experienced postwar unrest, which grew into what seemed increasingly like an open civil war About 3,000 people were killed in Italy between 1919 and 1922 161 What ended that was Mussolini s March on Rome and the birth of the first fascist state in 1922.In fact, Gerwarth argues, WWI only ended in 1923, giving way to a far too brief period of peace broken up oncein 1929 16, 248.What drove all of this horror and chaos To begin with, nationalism continued to chew up European borders, as relatively recent nationalist feelings ran up against older delineations of empire WWI s victors, while containing national republics of various sorts, were also intercontinental empires, and fought to balance these contradictions Moreover, the successful Soviet revolution of 1917 inspired workers uprisings around the world, along with anticommunist movements this is, after all, the start of the longest struggle of the 20th century, the Cold War.Further, the victors were a mess The Vanquished shreds the reputation of the Treaty of Versailles or,to the point, the character of its signatories, who managed the epic hypocrisy of mouthing slogans of national self determination while engaging in historical land grabs and meting out harsh, eventually self defeating terms to the defeated Central Powers That much is well know Gerwarth goes further, showing that the Versailles leaders added incompetence to hypocrisy, gradually losing control of the European area situation Violence and sharp politics on the ground undid the victors achievements and plans repeatedly Wilson s dream of spreading democracy actually backfired, with dictatorships on the rise, not retreat, by the mid 1920s 245.Along the way terrible precedents were set, and old ones renewed WWI began with strong efforts to avoid killing civilians Entente Allied propaganda would overstate German atrocities , but the post 1918 conflicts blurred the civilian soldier boundary thoroughly Irregular forces of many kinds would take to the streets, setting up a matrix for fascism s rise And ethnic cleansing became a serious policy tool, especially with the Greek Turkish population exchange of 2 million people across the Aegean.There are many good things to approve of in this book Gerwarth writes clearly and at times with passion, nicely organizing a great deal of complexity into clarity He relies on a rich range of sources At a smaller level, I was pleased to see Gerwarth accurately refer to the Sykes Picot agreement as Sykes Picot Sazanov 57.There are some weaknesses, however The biggest is neglecting the Spanish influenza, which ravaged the world at precisely this time, and killed a mind boggling 50 million or so people On the political side, I wanted to learnabout colonial lands as they took up nationalism against victorious empires, from India to Vietnam And, with Richard Fulton, I also wantedon the post Ottoman Middle East.These are complaints of greed based on a book that does so much so well Strongly recommended Page 169 my book Joseph P RothNationalism is the new religion This book demonstrates convincingly, how November 11 1918 was not the end of war particularly in Germany, and Eastern and Central Europe And the nature of war changed it becameethnic based With the dissolution of the Austro Hungarian Empire at war s end into several nation states there was a violent nationalistic struggle This was also encouraged by Woodrow Wilson s 14 Points which inspired the formation of new nation Page 169 my book Joseph P RothNationalism is the new religion This book demonstrates convincingly, how November 11 1918 was not the end of war particularly in Germany, and Eastern and Central Europe And the nature of war changed it becameethnic based With the dissolution of the Austro Hungarian Empire at war s end into several nation states there was a violent nationalistic struggle This was also encouraged by Woodrow Wilson s 14 Points which inspired the formation of new nations, particularly Point 10 The people of Austria Hungary should be accorded the freest opportunity to autonomous development Victimhood, too became a significant theme in all the defeated Central Powers Germany, Hungary, Bulgaria, and Austria Italy, too, felt victimized Italy was not rewarded territories that the Allies had earlier promised for aligning with them The extreme violence and upheavals of the Russian Revolution made all the new nations tremble with fear of the spread of Bolshevism To counter potential Bolshevik threats many countries became right wing dictatorships like Poland, Italy and Hungary Of these perceived threats scapegoats were the Jews this would culminate in the Holocaust.Page 122 23 Germany Freikorps The paramilitary groups were bastions of soldierly camaraderie and order in what the activist perceived as a hostile world of democratic egalitarianism and communist internationalism They perceived themselves as the nucleus of a new society of warriors, representing both the eternal values of the nation and new authoritarian concepts for a state in which the nation could thrive.Page 254 Entire countries in Central and Eastern Europe were to be purged of those deemed racially or politically undesirable The distinction between civilians and combatants, already blurred during the First World War, completely vanished during 1918 1923.This book traces the origins of the Second World War to the nation ethnic cleansing that took place from 1917 to 1923 After, there was a brief respite then it started all over again as the democracies lost ground and courage and the dictatorships built up their power.Note that this book has 267 pages of actual text, with many pages devoted to footnotes and bibliography The maps were inadequate cities and regions mentioned were not on the maps I used google map The war to end all wars as the Great War later the First World War World War One was contemporarily described and indeed thought of but as we know today with civil wars Spain and imperial quests Abyssinia Second Sino Japanese war in the 1930s, the Second World War, the Middle East, the Korean War, the end of Empires Dutch, British, French etc and many others stretching to the current day, the list of wars, conflicts and revolts is long and terribly costly in lives We now know that The war to end all wars as the Great War later the First World War World War One was contemporarily described and indeed thought of but as we know today with civil wars Spain and imperial quests Abyssinia Second Sino Japanese war in the 1930s, the Second World War, the Middle East, the Korean War, the end of Empires Dutch, British, French etc and many others stretching to the current day, the list of wars, conflicts and revolts is long and terribly costly in lives We now know that the 1914 18 war ushered in considerable change of not just Europe s boundaries but also those in the near middle East and further afield changes to monarchies and political systems legal treaty arrangements and, importantly alongside these, changes in people s aspirations, aims and the approaches to achieve or stymie these Many who read the 1914 1919 to Versailles period and indeed prior appreciate the complexity of the period s politics and monarchies, technical and social changes and how these influenced the war, its aims, alliances, strategies, tactics and outcomes that led to WWII Those who read WWII also have this baseline of how we get to Poland in 1939 and indeed beyond with ramifications still to be seen and felt from both wars even into 2019At a top level it is understood and well known that the large old empires such as Romanov, Hapsburg, Ottoman and Wilhelminian died in or by 1919 What perhaps readers of the period and certainly myself here don t quite appreciate is the detail and multitudinous level of conflict of the post war period from 1917 Russian revolution as well as worries such as the French mutiny to the years into 1923, where civil wars surge, anarchy rises and those aforementioned empires flail and crash leading to eventurmoil, death murder as well in battle and destruction Alongside Versailles and other end of wat treaties new models of politics rise and fall and rise again adapting to or taking advantage of circumstances where they settle scores and seek to meet objectives negotiated or not treated or not Simply put the guns never fell silent on 11th November 1918 of if they did in some areas they continued or started afresh in many others.Professor Gerwarth has weaved these complexities of nations especially the vanquished , peoples, ethnicities, aims, objectives and politics together in such an informative read that leaves the reader in no doubt that his subtitle to The Vanquished ofWhy The First World War Failed To Endis case proven.Where the author excels is his ability to clearly show the key points and players with clarity whilst linking and weaving events from other nations or areas to the current narrative I never lost track or sight of national events nor the events surrounding these both locally and wider The Russian civil war, Poland, Turkey, Italy and of course Germany are well covered but that is not to say that other defeated nations are not The complexity of the Balkans and southern Europe, the old Ottoman Empire and the middle East are all given time and page space In fact so lucid, and dare I say enjoyable I appreciate a difficult word to use when one is reading of people being killed is this book that I would happily have seen it extended by 300pages just to get evendetail on Bulgaria, Hungary, Romania, Greece, Armenia, Yugoslavia, the Slav Czech nations.The book benefits from some 90 pages of notes and a solid possibly near exhaustive bibliography sources listing The photos in my copy that was a Penguin paperback from 2017, had some fine black and white photos and clear and very welcome maps.All in all a fine read that shows Professor Gerwarth s skill and knowledge as a writer of this period As he says in his final sentences in his EpilogueIt is not without grim historical irony that the centenary of the Great War was accompanied by civil war in Syria and Iraq, revolution in Egypt and violent clashes between Jews and Arabs over the Palestinian question, as if to offer proof that at least some of the issues raised but not solved by the Great War and its immediate aftermath are still with us today

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